Application #9. Time-dependent discrete adjoint solution for UH60 helicopter in forward flight

Visualization of full time-dependent discrete adjoint solution for turbulent flow over UH60 helicopter in forward flight (adjoint solution for energy equation shown). Freestream Mach number is 0.236. Unlike traditional heuristic methods, the adjoint seeks to integrate backwards in time to establish the sensitivity of outputs to conditions upstream in time. This approach enables a rigorous methodology to determine discrete cause-and-effect relationships in the flowfield, such as “What errors are impacting my lift?” or “What variables should be changed to optimize my lift?”). Instead of human intuition, the resulting method instead relies on the underlying mathematics to enable design optimization and mesh adaptation for general unsteady flows.

This case is computed on a relatively coarse grid (composite overset mesh consists of 9 million grid points, 55 million elements) serving solely as a preliminary test case for the methodology. Visualization data extracted at run-time using FUN3D’s co-processing visualization capabilities.